November 2022 Analysis: National Security & Climate Change

Posted by : Simran Kharel


Date : 2022-11-15

Timeline of Major Events

Date Events
4 November  Nepal's remittance earnings may be harmed by climate change
9 November Elections on November 20 had an increased security monitoring
15 November Growing violent incidents made the security for the elections more difficult
18 November In Kathmandu, 5,779 security personnel were deployed for the election
20 November An Agreement on a New "Loss and Damage" Fund for Vulnerable Countries has Reached at COP27
21 November Vote counting began amidst strict security
29 November Families of Nepali migrant workers are being reminded of the hardship and deaths by the FIFA World Cup in 2022.

Nepal 2022 Election Security

The Ministry of Home Affairs reports that this time around, a significant number of security officers had been mobilized for election security on a need-basis for the Federal and provincial election 2022. Besides the overall peaceful election, there were quite a few cases of vandalism, injuries, verbal and personal attacks, discovering bombs and even death. The security officials had  to fire 69 rounds of air fire in polling stations to control the dispute between the party representatives. The report stated that there were 26 shots fired in Dolakha, 18 in Humla, 5 in Bajura, 4 in Doti and Taplejung, 3 in Darchula, Rautahat and Siraha, 2 in Syangja, and 1 in Chitwan. Not only that, bombs were discovered in 28 different places across the nation. 8 of them exploded, injuring two individuals.
Similarly, the elections had to be rescheduled in 15 different stations in four districts (Surkhet, Nawalpur, Gulmi, and in Bajura). Unfortunately, the dispute led to the death of a person, aged 24  in Bajura. Not only that, the Cadres of the Nepali congress and CPN-UML caused chaos in the voting center, i.e. Triveni municipality-7 in Bajura. The security personnels had to use force. Also,  during the campaigning for the party’s candidate for federal elections, CPN-UML’s Gandaki province secretariat member Hari Kafle got injured to the point where he had to get seven stitches in his head. The same day, The Rastriya Swatantra Party, led by Rabi Lamichhane, and members  of the   ruling coalition also got into a fight on Sunday afternoon in Chitwan. The members of the ruling coalition damaged a vehicle transporting members of Lamichhane's party in the Munglin- Kurintar region. In the same manner, Umesh Shrestha from the ruling Nepali Congress Party had also complained that his car was vandalized in Bharatpur metropolitan city-10. It was alarming when the locals stated that the local police acted like bystanders. The attacks continued despite the government’s strategy of deploying out 300,000 security personnels. People stated their concerns on how it looked pointless for having security personnels due to unexpected attacks.

COP27 breakthrough agreement: Moving through concrete Adaptation Measures

The COP27 conference held in Sharm el Sheikh city of Egypt from 6-18 November 2022 was successful in terms of national and international significance for Nepal. The Minister of Women, Children and Senior Citizens, Ms. Uma Regmi represented Nepal. Overall, the Conference of the Parties focused on emphasizing on the critical importance of empowering all stakeholders to engage in five- year climate action for more inclusiveness. It ended with a breakthrough agreement to provide the funding for all the loss and damages incurred by the climate disasters, an issue added and adopted for the first time. This was the majority of countries' concern including Nepal as the country alerted on the issue of sensitive geography and the effects on ecosystems in the Himalayan areas. Nepal also pointed out on the gap in financing to cover up the losses caused by Climate Change induced disasters to the delegates
Moreover, the countries that participated came to the conclusion that they would stay committed to limit the global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees celsius, and cut greenhouse gas emissions for better adaptation. In addition, new funding arrangements including dedicated funds to assist developing nations were imposed. Transitional committee is to be established and expected to be operationalized by the end of March 2023 in order to provide recommendations on ways to operationalize funding.
On the other hand, new pledges of more than USD 230 million were made to the Adaptation fund which will help the vulnerable countries to adapt to climate change through concrete adaptation solutions. Moreover, the Sharm el- Sheikh implementation plan highlights that a global low carbon economy transformation will require at least 4-6 trillion USD a year. There were also few concerns that the developed countries’ goal to mobilize USD 100 billion per year by 2020 were not met. It depicts the requirement for a comprehensive transformation of the financial system, structures, processes, engaging governments, central banks, commercial banks, institutional investors and financial actors.

FIFA World Cup 2022: A brutal reminder of all the lost lives

The 2022 World Cup has created anticipation and excitement amongst the fans worldwide. Unfortunately, it also serves as a reminder of all the lives lost during the stadium’s construction. In the case of Nepal, at least 2200 Nepali workers died due to dangerous and harsh working circumstances. Initially, by signing a contract with the ILO Qatar promised in November 2017 to enhance working conditions. It seemed promising for the migrant workers but was ineffective, given the high death rates. Not only that, the role of the Nepal government to protect the migrant workers and the situation in Qatar was little to nothing, especially when Qatar dismissed the deaths by stating that it was due to natural causes and not related to the construction.